Breaking Racial Lines: The Formation of Black Greek-Letter Organizations at UW–Madison

By Kayla Rose Parker

The research in this blog post was completed as a part of the University of Wisconsin–Madison’s Public History Project. The multi-year project aims to reckon with the university’s history of racism, exclusion, and discrimination. The project will culminate in an exhibit in the fall of 2022, an interactive online website, and curricular tools. By sharing research before the opening of the exhibit, we hope to begin conversations about the history of UW–Madison and discuss how we can all work towards building a more equitable campus community. The nature of historical research is that it will always be incomplete. It is impossible for us to know everything that happened in the past. Therefore, the research in this post is imperfect, as all history is. Our student researchers have completed the research below with all of the historical documents available to them at the time of publication. There will be alternative perspectives to those detailed below. We believe that the discussions that arise out of these differing perspectives are an integral part of the process of reckoning with our history. We welcome responses and discussion. Responses submitted by email will be posted in a response and discussion post within one week after the original publication date. Responses with vulgar or offensive language will not be posted.

The Black fraternal system at UW–Madison has built a legacy of community, resistance, and perseverance. Black Greek-letter Organizations (BGLOs) became a crucial part of the Black Student community at UW–Madison, creating the first formally Black spaces on an otherwise white campus. UW–Madison has been home to eight of the nation’s nine historically Black Greek-letter organizations, known as the Divine Nine. These organizations established themselves at UW–Madison as the first Black-community oriented spaces, finding a home on campus despite—and in some ways because of—its predominantly white student body. The predominantly Black Fraternities UW–Madison has had on campus are Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc., Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., and Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, Inc. The Sororities are Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc., Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc., Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc., and Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc.

Nationally, six out of the nine organizations that make up the Black fraternal system were founded at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), reflecting the single most important goal of these organizations: uplifting the Black community. The remaining three organizations were established at predominantly white institutions (PWIs), including the very first organization, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., founded at Cornell in 1906.

BGLOs came to be at UW–Madison in the same way that they did at most predominantly white institutions—as expressions of the need for solidarity and mutual support in the face of a frequently hostile and demeaning campus environment. At universities across the country white Greek Letter Organizations (WGLOs) were created to be exclusive, and as a result they were exceptionally so. White fraternal organizations, when exposed to a changing campus demographic, hardened their stance even as formal social organizations (such as clubs and honors societies) loosened theirs. The WGLOs did not simply ban Black students from being admitted into its ranks, but for decades actively fostered an anti-Black environment. Prior to the founding of the Black fraternal system, Black UW–Madison students were not permitted to join many social organizations, making it difficult to find community and connection.

During the course of my research, I struggled to find information on BGLOs at UW–Madison because the archival record on these organizations was incredibly sparse. The information that I did find about these fraternities and sororities took months of paging through archived files—files that left me with almost nothing on Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc., Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc., Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc., and Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, Inc. Most of the information I did find came during the era of the Human Rights Committee, a university body aimed at ridding the university of discrimination, which functioned between 1950 and 1973. Both Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, Inc and Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc. were established in 1979; these organizations therefore came into being after this archival window into Black Greek life had closed. Similarly, virtually no record was left of Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc. and Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc. Outside of records pertaining to their establishment, the university largely neglected to collect the printed history of these organizations. When compared to the multitudes of information that was kept on WGLOs—party fliers, meeting minutes, fees and dues—the discrepancy is jarring. The university’s concern for the presence and wellbeing of Black students was, in this way, demonstrably surface level. This gap in the historical record is unfortunately reflected in the very limited references to these four organizations in the rest of this post.

Most BGLOs that have graced UW Madison’s campus were established or re-established between 1967 and 1973. During that time, the Human Rights Committee ensured the anti-discrimination policies of all the fraternities and sororities on campus were being upheld. As such, when it came time for the BGLO Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc. to prove its lack of discrimination during re-establishment in 1968, the national fraternity stated in a letter to the university “that Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity has never had any provision restricting membership and it was principally because of such restrictions which caused the formation of this Fraternity. Non-discrimination is, in fact, practiced.”[1] The environment surrounding the conception of the Black fraternal system contributed to the system’s operations. Black Greek students were far too acquainted with discriminatory policies to create such policies themselves—they were concerned, instead, with establishing a community space they could thrive in.

The university—content with the work it was doing to rid itself of discriminatory policies and increase diversity within the student body—neglected to establish the community space necessary to ease the transition of students of color onto a primarily white campus. BGLOs were therefore expected to rely on traditionally white methods of organization to exist on this campus. Methods such as joining the white fraternal organizing body, the Inter-Fraternity Council, and engaging in events designed for the pleasure of a white student body, such as homecoming, demonstrated to the BGLOs, and Black students more generally, that their Blackness would be only tolerated, not welcomed. Rather than suffer through this mere toleration, BGLOs chose to design methods of their own to establish a functioning Black community space. The BGLOs organized a Black Greek Council and hosted their own Homecoming events. In an advertisement for the event, the Council stated that it “decided to break away from the traditional Homecoming activities because of their white domination and differences in goals.”[2] The lack of support and attention the university dedicated to Black students, coupled with how small the Black community was in proportion to the greater student body, left an isolated Black student body understandably reluctant to express solidarity with the white campus mainstream.[3] Every BGLO attended this event, and it seems that most of the Black student body opted for this over the traditionally white Homecoming events as well. Black Homecoming began in 1969 and continued for several years, becoming a glorious demonstration of BGLOs and the larger Black student community’s ability to make space for themselves within the university structure. The Black fraternal organizations did not conform to the institutions of the white fraternal organizations. Where they could, they made their own coordinating bodies, they hosted their own events, and they redefined what ‘Greek Life’ meant to them.

Five female members of the 1969 Homecoming Court are pictured with Bill Cosby. The Homecoming Queen, Carolyn Williams, is wearing a large tiara and holding a bouquet of roses.
The 1969 Homecoming Court. Carolyn Williams, the first Black Homecoming Queen, is 3rd from the left. They are pictured with Bill Cosby who headlined a stand-up show at the Field House to kick off that year’s Homecoming weekend. Courtesy UW Archives.

The reluctance of BGLOs to participate in mainstream campus activity did not result in a complete boycott. Rather, the BGLOs actively worked to reform these mainstream activities while simultaneously hosting their own events, evidenced by the election of Carolyn Williams as UW–Madison’s first Black woman as Homecoming Queen in 1969. Carolyn Williams was sponsored by Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc. who hosted their own vote alongside the Homecoming committee’s vote to ensure that the final election count was not tainted.[4] Even in participating in existing structures, Black students felt they could not trust the university’s intentions. The election of Carolyn Williams was discussed by some students as “a step towards improvement” regarding the race relations on the campus.[5] This student interpretation of progress is slightly misleading, however, as the election was only accomplished through an immense push by the Black student community, and even then, their distrust of the primarily white student body to honestly participate is evident in their double-check of the vote. The BGLO engagement with mainstream campus activity was limited to reformative purposes. Until the white campus community tried of their own will to welcome Black students into the community, this limited interaction with campus-wide social activity and the separate institutions crafted by BGLOs would necessarily remain.

Black Students in White Fraternities

A headshot of G. James Flemming, wearing a suit and tie, pictured on the cover of the Wisconsin Alumnus Magazine, April 1949.
G. James Flemming pictured on the cover of the Wisconsin Alumnus Magazine, April 1949. Courtesy UW Archives.

For the larger part of UW–Madison’s existence, only white fraternal organizations were established on campus. There are very few instances of Black students attempting to join a fraternity before the establishment of Madison’s first Black fraternal organization. In my own research, I have only come across one. But this one instance demonstrates the veracity of discrimination within white fraternal organizations that bore the necessity of the BGLO. In 1932, UW–Madison student James Flemming was urged by university leaders to join the national honors speech fraternity, Delta Sigma Rho. Flemming, a Black student and decorated speaker and debater, was denied membership based on his race. Delta Sigma Rho kept an anti-Black provision within their constitution which prevented the Madison chapter from admitting Flemming. While both the university and the local chapter petitioned the National organization to rid itself of this racist clause, the National fraternity did not budge, and they subsequently dropped the issue.[6] The unwillingness of an honors fraternity to part with its history of racism left little hope for traditional social fraternities whose function was decreasingly scholarship and increasingly social.

The prejudices of UW–Madison’s fraternal system were challenged 17 years later. In the fall of 1949, the first Black student was pledged into a white fraternity at UW–Madison – Phi Sigma Delta. Weathers ‘Sonny’ Sykes was welcomed into the Jewish fraternity whose members, when questioned, stated they “came to see him as a man, rather than as a color, and it was on that basis that ‘Sonny’ was suggested and discussed for pledging.” In this discussion, the pledging of a Black man was not at all overlooked, rather it was a severe deduction from Sykes’ status as a potential pledge. Over more than five hours, the members of Phi Sigma Delta discussed Sykes’ character and the implications for their chapter in the pledging of a Black man. To Sykes’ luck, “in the final weighing, the positive factors over-balanced the negative ones.”[7] Each student, deciding that pledging Sykes was worth breaking past precedent, voted to admit Sykes into their social fraternity. The milestone of this event even made it into local newspaper coverage. When questioned by students on why this event was covered in the news section, rather than being published in the social section, The Daily Cardinal responded that “when the time finally arrives that the pledging of a Negro to a white fraternity is not an unusual event and can be handled on the society pages in the routine way, a great goal will have been achieved. But until that goal is in sight, each milestone is news and must be recorded as such. Every innovator, from Archimedes to Henry Kaiser gets a lot of publicity.”[8] The pledging of Sykes was clearly a newsworthy event.

A photo of thirty-eight Phi Sigma Delta fraternity men from the 1950 Badger Yearbook. Weathers ‘Sonny’ Sykes is the only Black man amongst a group a white men.
Weathers ‘Sonny’ Sykes pictured in Phi Sigma Delta’s 1950 Badger Yearbook photo. Sykes is in the fourth row, fifth from the left. Courtesy UW Archives.

The Jewish background of this Fraternity is crucial to this event. Because Jewish students at the time were similarly barred from most white fraternal organizations, they created their own. It was because of their prior exclusion from other fraternities that their newly created body, Phi Sigma Delta, possessed no restrictive clauses in its constitution which ultimately allowed Sykes to be admitted. The fraternity was therefore pre-disposed to operate in a non-exclusionary way. Even before the pledging of Sykes, Phi Sigma Delta was involved in the Fraternity Inter-Racial Committee which focused on increasing understanding between racial and religious minorities on campus. There was already an effort on behalf of this fraternity to close the racial gap. Few other social fraternities would follow suit.

Discriminatory Clauses

Unlike Phi Sigma Delta, most historically white fraternal organizations did not care to admit students of color and often, under the terms of their national constitutions, forbidden from doing so.[9] A significant number of the white fraternities and, to a lesser extent, sororities at UW–Madison possessed discriminatory clauses at some point in their time on campus. Interestingly, sororities often did not have discriminatory clauses in their charters, yet they remained exclusively white organizations, speaking to a culture of active exclusion.

As popular opinion shifted, this exclusionary philosophy grew questionable to students, followed by faculty. In November of 1948, the UW student government, called the student board, hosted a session on discrimination in which they voted to ban fraternities and sororities that did not rid themselves of their discriminatory clauses within the following 3 years.[10] The Human Rights Committee, established in 1950, was in part a response to this student board session. In its first statement after its founding, the committee described discrimination as a corrosive ideal that the university would be working to eliminate.[11] In 1952, the Human Rights Committee published Document 1041 including what would become the infamous “1960 clause” which stated, “that no such organization which has in its national or local constitution or pledge instructions a discriminatory clause shall be approved by the University after July 1, 1960.”[12] The clock was officially ticking for the white fraternities and sororities at UW–Madison—if after that date they still possessed discriminatory language within their constitution (later amended to both discriminatory language and behavior) they would no longer be allowed to affiliate with the university. As white ‘Greek’ students and alumni clung onto the discrimination they had so thoughtfully nurtured, the university dissolved its toleration for discriminatory behavior and began to dismantle it within the fraternal and sororal systems.

Hence began a rather tumultuous period for white Greek-letter organizations on campus; many members of WGLOs did not enjoy the moral microscope that they were put under in this process. Some members of the organizations demonstrated this discontent by refusing to cooperate with and even protesting the Human Rights Committee. Many within the fraternal organization—students and alumni alike—contended that discrimination was an essential part of the fraternal system. ‘Greek’ students tended to take one of two sides on this point. On one hand, students claimed that if the discriminatory ways of the system were to be challenged, the system would fall apart. This is evident in the many newspaper articles written by students within the white Greek-letter system who accused members of the Human Rights committee of seeking the destruction of fraternities and sororities, claiming victimhood for themselves in the process.[13] On the other hand, some ‘Greek’ students encouraged their ‘brothers’ and ‘sisters’ to welcome this change, inspiring empathy and discussing the necessity of modernizing to keep the system alive.

By 1962, most of the fraternities and sororities on campus (social and scholarship based) had successfully met the requirements of the “1960 Clause” and removed their discriminatory policies. However, there remained cases of discriminatory behavior. In 1961, Margaret Mitchell claimed that she was refused from a sorority because she was Black. This was investigated by the Americans for Democratic Action, a student organization.[14] Claims such as this persisted on both a formal and informal level throughout the 1960s provoking a few investigations. In response, the university threatened to kick a couple organizations off campus; no punishments were administered. Outside of these instances, there is no record of interaction between minority students and white fraternities and sororities. The pledging of minority students into the WGLOs and communication between BGLOs and WGLOs halted during this time, even as discriminatory clauses fell away.

The university continued to keep an eye on white fraternities and sororities as their national organizations could enforce discriminatory practices without them being written. The reluctance of the white fraternal system to rid itself of the discriminatory culture that permeated it left it as the last social institution to be segregated at UW–Madison. With every other organization at UW–Madison seeking to expand and broaden the diversity element of their membership after years of segregation, the fraternal system remained an artifact of the era in which it was created. Some would argue that it stubbornly remains that way.[15]

Alpha Phi Alpha and Kappa Alpha Psi in the 1940s

It was in this environment that Black Greek Letter Organizations were first established on campus in 1946. In part due to the small Black student population, these organizations remained small and few until the 1970s. The Madison Chapter of Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc., Beta Omicron, was established at the university on April 22, 1946. In its first yearbook appearance, the fraternity stated its purpose was “to inspire its members to an achievement in all fields of human endeavor.”[16] The fraternity hosted several annual social events such as a summer picnic and a homecoming dance. Even in its first years on campus, it was active in the political scene, engaging the primarily white student body in presentations about Civil Rights.[17] Also in 1946, the Madison Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., Gamma Epsilon, was established. One of its members, referred to in the yearbook as I. Miller, even served on the Inter-Fraternity Council in 1948 – a managing body on each University campus that promotes cooperation between the fraternities by providing a space for representatives of each fraternity to gather.[18] Cooperation between BGLOs and WGLOs in this fashion is rarely seen again. Ironically, as WGLOs were faced with more pressure to cooperate with BGLOs, they became more reluctant to do so. As BGLOs grew in strength and number, they participated in their own managing body, the Black Greek Council, creating a collaborative space where they were respected rather than tolerated.

Thirteen Kappa Alpha Psi fraternity men pictured around their fraternity seal.
The Beta Omicron Chapter of Kappa Alpha Psi fraternity pictured in 1948 Badger Yearbook. Courtesy UW Archives.

Re-establishments and Establishments in the 1960s and 70s

Madison’s Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc. chapter was deactivated in 1954 due to a lack of participation and therefore lost funding before being reactivated in 1963, and again in 1968. Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. was deactivated in 1961 for unrecorded reasons, though it seems to have remained informally active until its reestablishment in 1969. In 1968, it still hosted a dance and a Thanksgiving food drive in the wake of MLK’s assassination despite not being formally recognized by the university.[19] Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc. is established in 1967, Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. in 1968, Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc. in 1969, and Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc. in 1973. Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc., Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Inc., and Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. all begin their efforts of establishment through pledging several UW–Madison students through the organizations’ Milwaukee chapters before the chapters are established at UW–Madison. The flurry of establishments of BGLOs at the university was met with no administrative resistance if paperwork and pledges were in order. The agreeable nature of the establishment process, in contrast to the usual sticky bureaucratic policies that tend to slow such practices, was justified by a university administrator who stated that they “believe we jeopardize the college experience of our present negroes for the long-range goal of integration by not accepting the predominantly negro fraternities…why try to create other means of integration, which are often artificial and rejected, when an existing system can assist us in obtaining our objectives?”[20] Perhaps in some ways supportive of the growing Black community, and in other ways eager to be relieved of their diversity-initiative duties, the university welcomed the establishment of BGLOs during this time. As a result, BGLOs became the first organized Black space on campus.

Relationship between BGLOs and the Black Community

The necessity of the independence of these organizations and their structures has already been discussed, but the impacts of these organizations on the Black community—the community for which they were created and of which they are composed—at UW–Madison is crucial and understanding their significance. Black Greek Letter Organizations at UW–Madison expanded beyond the campus community and were directly involved in the Black Power Movement of the 1960s and 70s. Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. released a pamphlet entitled “The Dream Lives On” following MLK’s assassination where they discuss the plight of Black students at the university. The pamphlet stated, “No one knows the ‘test of a man’ as well as the undergrad Brothers here in Madison. Not only do we Brothers deal with keen classroom situations, but also the social, economic, political, and everyday coping that seems to be a constant deterrent.” The pamphlet also discussed how the members of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc felt grateful to have a campus community of Black students.[21] The Black fraternal system’s focus on bettering Black lives was again demonstrated by a public policy statement published by Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., upon request of the UW–Madison Fraternity-life coordinator, sent a 10-page pamphlet underscoring the national fraternity’s public policy to the university for distribution to the student body. The pamphlet detailed the national fraternity’s stance on many political issues facing Black Americans including but not limited to higher education, unemployment, fair housing, racism in the media, and political prisoners. [22] The BGLOs were on the same frequency as most other Black students at the time—the issues facing the Black community required focus and action, regardless of the university climate. BGLOs made the most of the space they created, immortalizing themselves as a place of Black community on campus.

Within the Black student body, there were divides along ‘Greek’ and ‘non-Greek’ lines. At the height of the Black Power Movement, some Black students questioned the necessity of BGLOs, suggesting that they stood in the way of the central idea of unity. BGLOs, however, saw themselves as contributing to unity among the Black student population. Alpha Kappa Alpha Fraternity, Inc., stated in a newspaper article in 1969 that “The Black Movement is composed of different groups, Black arts, politics, etc., and what we are all doing is social and service. What is essential to a Black movement is Black people and a sorority doesn’t negate this.”[23] The members of the sorority asserted that they were contributing to the Black Power Movement, and that any questions of their Blackness were unwarranted. Delta Sigma Theta Sorority Inc., newly established in 1969, added onto this defense: “We are Black and being a Delta doesn’t make any difference.”[24] Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc. and Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc. similarly represented themselves as Black students first and ‘Greeks’ second. Sara Jackson, the president of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority Inc. in 1969, characterized this difference as two groups within the Black student community. Jackson said that every Black student was a part of the Black Power Movement, but the divide laid between those who were “very, very, very into the Black Power Movement,” and those who “had the same concerns, but were not as strong into the struggle.”[25] Many Black students at this time were activists; some simply spent more time with their activism than others. Regardless of this divide, BGLOs were still recognized as an important part of the Black student community. In a pamphlet catered towards incoming Black students, Black ‘Greek Life’ was praised as a place of community building and social thriving.[26] BGLOs contributed to the small Black community at UW–Madison. This community was essential to the Black student’s well-being at a predominantly white institution.


Black Greek Letter Organizations have long been denied the recognition that they deserve on campus. Conceptualized and created by Black individuals who knew themselves deserving of social organizations at institutions of higher learning, BGLOs carry an impressive legacy as centers of Black community and Black excellence, characteristics which ring true for the BGLOs on UW–Madison’s campus. Their existence at the University of Wisconsin–Madison was prompted by the institution’s whiteness. As the university decided to confront the racial disparities that it fostered, white fraternal organizations clung to their discriminatory traditions. The white fraternal system’s reluctance to modernize in some ways inadvertently created space for BGLOs on campus. However, it is important to recognize that these institutions were and are far more than a mere response to racism—they are a cultural and social institution that, above all, were established on UW–Madison’s campus to promote community among the Black student population. In the face of a largely unsupportive and unsympathetic university, BGLOs survived and thrived. Now half a century old, the predominantly Black fraternal and sororal organizations have established a permanent presence on this campus and continue to pursue the goals they have always stood for.

If you or anyone you know was a part of the BGLO community during the 1960s and 1970s and wishes to add that story to our growing collection of information, please contact us! Individuals are not often taught to think of themselves as sources of historical knowledge, but they are. Individuals hold intimate knowledge of their campus, their neighborhoods, and their communities. That is why we want to hear from you. We believe that this project will be the most successful when it deeply engages all of those in our community. If you have a story to share, an event you think should be researched, or a person you think has been overlooked, please contact us.

In April of 2021, UW–Madison campus leaders and students gathered to break ground on the new Divine Nine Garden Plaza on East Campus Mall. The plaza will create a garden space and install historical markers recognizing the contributions of the National Pan-Hellenic Council, the nine historically Black Greek-letter fraternities and sororities in the nation. This is an important step in recognizing the deep history and the significant contributions that Black Greek Letter Organizations have made at UW–Madison. Student Affairs has launched a fundraising campaign to create the garden plaza, which is estimated to cost about $250,000. Information on donating can be found on the Student Affairs website.

[1] H. H. Holloway to George Bohrnstedt, Mar. 27, 1963, Coordinator of Fraternity Affairs Records, UW Archives.

[2] Kathryn Kreinz, “Black Homecoming,” The Badger Herald, Nov. 5, 1970, Coordinator of Fraternity Affairs Records, UW Archives.

[3]1969 Black Student Strike,” UW Madison News; The earliest report of student attendance based on racial/ ethnic identity did not occur until the 1974–1975 academic year in which 825 students identified as African American out of 36,915 undergraduate and graduate students, which is roughly 2% of the student population. Between 1967 and 1974, however, an effort to recruit Black students to the university was undertaken, therefore the figure in 1969 is most likely lower than that of 1974.

[4] “Homecoming,” The Black Student at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1970, Afro-American Center Records. Box 1, UW Archives. P. 6.

[5] Millie Clark, “sister reigns over UW,” …and Beautiful, Dec. 11, 1969, Wisconsin Historical Society.

[6]Bar to Negro Stirs Campus,” The Journal’s Madison Bureau, May 15, 1931; “On the Cover,” Wisconsin Alumnus, Apr. 1949.

[7] “Phi Sigma Delta breaks precedence: Fraternity explains Negro pledging,” The Daily Cardinal, Nov. 15, 1949, The University of Wisconsin Archives.

[8] University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin Badger (Madison, WI: 1950), 368, UW Digital Collections.

[9] For more on the history of exclusion in White Greek Letter Organizations at UW–Madison see Angela Peterson, “Rewriting Chapters: Resistance to Addressing Discriminatory Practices in University of Wisconsin–Madison Fraternities and Sororities, 1947–1962” Archive Journal, Volume 23, May 2020, University of Wisconsin–Madison.

[10] Jim Zucker, “Board Will Vote Tonight on Greek Restrictive Bars,” The Daily Cardinal, Nov. 24, 1948, UW Archives.

[11] “Document 933: University Committee Report on Human Rights for Students,” Feb. 6, 1950, Coordinator of Sorority Affairs Records, UW Archives.

[12] “Document 1041: Report of the Committee on Human Rights,” May 19, 1952, Coordinator of Sorority Affairs Records, UW Archives.

[13] Roy Clark, “Is Destruction the Goal?,” The Rattle of Theta Chi, 1953, Coordination of Sorority Affairs Records, UW Archives.

[14] “New Officers for ADA Committee Picked Wednesday,” The Daily Cardinal, Oct 9, 1961, UW Archives.

[15]  For more see Maryam Gamar, “Greek life is losing members. Here’s why.,” Vox,  April 23, 2021; Charlotte Hogg, “Sororities and fraternities are finally confronting their racist past,” The Washington Post, October 21, 2020; Ezra Marcus, “The War on Frats,” The New York Times, August 1, 2020.

[16] University of Wisconsin Madison, Badger ’47(Madison, WI: 1947), 292, UW Digital Collections.

[17] University of Wisconsin Madison, Badger(Madison, WI: 1948), 278, UW Digital Collections.

[18] University of Wisconsin Madison, Badger(Madison, WI: 1948), 263, UW Digital Collections.

[19] Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, The Dream Lives On, 1968, Alpha Phi Alpha Records, Box 1, UW Archives.

[20] Letter from Robert Winkler to Roland Hinz, Oct. 12, 1967, Committee on Human Rights Records, Box 19, UW Archives.

[21] Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, The Dream Lives On, 1968, Alpha Phi Alpha Records, Box 1, UW Archives.

[22] Alpha Phi Alpha, Public Policy Statement, 1970, Coordinator of Fraternity Affairs Records, UW Archives; Letter from Earl Settlemyer to Laurence Young, Nov. 9, 1971, Coordinator of Fraternity Affairs Records, UW Archives.

[23] “Black groups on campus,” …and Beautiful, Dec. 11, 1969, Wisconsin Historical Society.

[24] Ibid.

[25] “Sara Jackson-Brunson”, transcript of an oral history conducted 2021 by Kayla Parker, UW–Madison Public History Project, University of Wisconsin–Madison Archives, pg 3.

[26] “Greek Life,” The Black Student at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1970, Afro-American Center Records, Box 1, UW Archives. P. 14.